Untitled Document


  1.     Journal article, one author, journal paginated consecutively (i.e., each issue in the year’s volume is paginated from where the previous issue left off)
    Jennings, A. (1994). On being invisible in the mental health system. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 21, 374–387.
  2.     Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue (i.e., each issue in the year’s volume begins on p. 1)
    Schreiber, R., & Nemetz, E. (1992). Pay equity for Ontario's nurses. The Canadian Nurse, 88(9), 17–19. 
  3.     Journal article, more than six authors
    Bernabei, R., Gambassi, G., Lapane, K., Landi, F., Gatsonis, C., Dunlop, R., et al. (1998). Management of pain in elderly cancer patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1917–1922.
  4.     Magazine article
    Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673–674. 
  5.     Daily newspaper article, no author
    Health-care sector swallowing bitter bill. (1994, September 29). The Globe and Mail, pp. A1–A2.  


  1.     Reference to an entire book
    Baines, C., Evans, P., & Neysmith, S. (1991). Women's caring: Feminist perspectives on social welfare. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: McClelland & Stewart.
  2.     Book, second edition
    Waltz, C. F., Strickland, O. L., & Lenz, E. R. (1991). Measurement in nursing research (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. 
  3.     Book,  in press
    Everett, B. (in press). A fragile revolution: Consumers and survivors confront the power of the mental health system. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.   
  4.     Book, corporate author
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on Nursing Home Regulation. (1986). Improving the quality of care in nursing homes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 
  5.     Book, corporate author, author as publisher
    American Nurses Association. (1987). The care of clients with addictions. Kansas City, MO: Author. 
  6.     Edited book
    Baumgart, A., & Larsen, J. (Eds.). (1992). Canadian nursing faces the future (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book.  
  7.     Book, no author or editor
    ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary. (1998). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ITP Nelson.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

  1.     Two editors 
    Parke, R. D., & Anderson, E. R. (1987). Fathers and their at-risk infants: Conceptual and empirical analyses. In P. W. Berman & F. A. Pedersen (Eds.), Men's transitions to parenthood: Longitudinal studies of early family experience (pp. 197–215). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 
  2.     Three editors 
    Lush, M. T., Henry, S. B., Foote, K., & Jones, D. L. (1997). Developing a generic health status measure for use in a computer-based outcomes infrastructure. In U. Gerdin, M. Tallberg, & P. Wainwright (Eds.), Nursing informatics (pp. 229–234). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Contributions to Meetings or Symposia

  1.     Unpublished paper presented at a meeting
    Evers, G., & Isenberg, M. (1987, October). Reliability and validity of the appraisal of self-care agency (ASA) scale. Paper presented at the International Nursing Research Conference, Washington, DC.
  2.     Contribution to a published proceedings 
    Given, B. A., Given, C. W., & Stommel, M. (1992). Depression and family caregiving: Measurement and definition. In B. Bauer (Ed.), Conceptual and methodological issues in family caregiving research: Proceedings of the Invitational Conference on Family Caregiving Research (pp. 20–30). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto, Faculty of Nursing.
  3.     Contribution to a proceedings published regularly 
    Zeally, A. K., & Aitken, R. C. B. (1969). Measurement of mood. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 62, 993–996. 

Unpublished manuscripts

  1.     Unpublished manuscript not submitted for publication 
    Irvine Doran, D., Sidani, S., McGillis Hall, L., Watt-Watson, J., Mallette, C., Laschinger, H., et al. (2001). The state of science: A methodological review of the literature on nursing-sensitive outcomes. Unpublished report.
  2.      Unpublished manuscript with a university cited
    Norman, G., Feightner, J., Tugwell, P., Muzzin, L., & Guyatt, G. (1983). The generalizability of measures of clinical problem solving. Unpublished manuscript, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 
  3.      Manuscript submitted for publication but not yet accepted 
    Author’s surname, first initial. (year). Title of work. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    (Note that name of journal or publisher is not given if manuscript has not yet been accepted.)

Electronic Media

When the fourth edition of the APA Publication Manual was published in 1994, its editors said that "a standard had not yet emerged for referencing on-line information" (APA, 1994, p. 218). How very true. APA has since superseded its initial guidelines about referencing electronic sources with numerous updates on its Web site. The section about electronic references in the new fifth edition of the Publication Manual (2001) has been substantially revised and increased to reflect the myriad of new electronic sources that have emerged since the last manual was published. Since many writers may be unfamiliar with how to reference these kinds of sources, I have included a few examples. Check their Web site at http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html periodically for further updates before the next edition of the Publication Manual is published.

  1. Electronic online versions of articles from print journals
    Murphy, N., & Canales, M. (2001). A critical analysis of compliance. Nursing Inquiry, 8, 173-181. Retrieved September 4, 2002, from
    Soares-Weiser, K., Paul, M., Brezis, M., & Leibovici, L. (2002). Antibiotic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. British Medical Journal, 324, 100-102. Retrieved September 4, 2002, from
  2. Article from an Internet-only journal
    Russo, H. (2001, September 30). Window of opportunity for home care nurses: Telehealth technologies.  Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 6(3), Manuscript 4. Retrieved September 4, 2002, from
Material in this guide was prepared by Barbara Bauer, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, September 2003.

©2007, Barbara Bauer. All rights reserved